Data and methods
Figures in this report correspond to APPICAPS’s best assessment of the value of the corresponding variables, according to the process described under Data and Methods. Although due care has been taken in the preparation of this report, APICCAPS cannot guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the report and cannot be held responsible for any error or loss resulting from its use. Other organizations quoted herein are similarly in no way responsible for the content of this report or the consequences of its use.
General data on each country have been retrieved from publicly available sources, namely the CIA Factbook, IMF’s World Economic Outlook database and the World Bank’s World DataBank.
The COMTRADE database, from the United Nations Statistics Division, and COMEXT, from the European Union’s Eurostat, were our primary sources on foreign trade: we use COMEXT data for European Union member countries when significant divergence with COMTRADE arises and this latter source for all other countries. Using these sources we have tried to compile a complete record of the exports and imports of footwear for every country in the world, at the Harmonized System four-digit level, for the 2005-2015 period. On occasion, we did resort to national statistics agencies to cover missing figures in our primary sources.
We employed a variety of methods to overcome any shortfalls in this database. For every country that did not report footwear trade in a given year we built ‘mirror statistics’ i.e. we used other countries’ import statistics to assess the value of a country’s exports and similarly of its imports. We used statistical and econometrical methods to make good any limited shortfalls in a country’s data profile.
Except in the case of obvious errors, we use foreign trade data as published by official statistics agencies. These data have limitations and inconsistencies that are widely discussed in technical and academic publications. No attempt is made here to address such limitations and inconsistencies as we are in no better position than those very bodies to resolve such issues.
We collected production figures from trade associations and trade publications. Consumption figures are to be understood as for apparent consumption, calculated as production plus imports minus exports, assuming no variation in stocks. In some cases, with data available for consumption but not production, we worked inversely in assessing the latter.
The list of main players by country was provided by InformaDB (Portuguese local representative of Dun & Bradstreet) for all companies in the footwear sector with both industrial and commercial SICS being included. Companies are listed according to turnover. For more detailed information please contact your local Dun & Bradstreet representative.
Other information provided in the report was generally gathered from trade associations and trade publications.
APICCAPS wishes to thank the following International and Portuguese organizations for providing the information and / or support which was essential in producing this report: the U.N. Statistical Division, Eurostat, the European Commission, the Portuguese Government, AICEP Portugal Global, DGAE – Portuguese Directorate-General for Economic Activities, IAPMEI – Portuguese Institute for SME and Innovation and Programa Compete.
We also wish to acknowledge the contributions of a large number of national footwear sector organizations for providing us with important country-specific information. Due to the large number of organizations we cannot list them all individually. However, this report could not be prepared without their valued help and assistance.
Acknowledgements notwithstanding, these organizations bear no responsibility for the content of this report, the sole author of which is APICCAPS.